Password Encryption RC4

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The secure asymmetric cryptographic algorithm includes: 3DES, Blowfish, Cast128, DES, Thin Ice, Ice, Ice2, RC2, RC4, Rijndael, Serpent, Tea and Twofish.

RC4 Introduction:

RC4 generates a pseudorandom stream of bits (a keystream). As with any stream cipher, these can be used for encryption by combining it with the plaintext using bit-wise exclusive-or; decryption is performed the same way (since exclusive-or is a symmetric operation). (This is similar to the Vernam cipher except that generated pseudorandom bits, rather than a prepared stream, are used.) To generate the keystream, the cipher makes use of a secret internal state which consists of two parts:

A permutation of all 256 possible bytes (denoted "S" below).
Two 8-bit index-pointers (denoted "i" and "j").

The permutation is initialized with a variable length key, typically between 40 and 256 bits, using the key-scheduling algorithm (KSA). Once this has been completed, the stream of bits is generated using the pseudo-random generation algorithm (PRGA).

RC4 Security:

Unlike a modern stream cipher (such as those in eSTREAM), RC4 does not take a separate nonce alongside the key. This means that if a single long-term key is to be used to securely encrypt multiple streams, the cryptosystem must specify how to combine the nonce and the long-term key to generate the stream key for RC4. One approach to addressing this is to generate a "fresh" RC4 key by hashing a long-term key with a nonce. However, many applications that use RC4 simply concatenate key and nonce; RC4's weak key schedule then gives rise to a variety of serious problems.

Because RC4 is a stream cipher, it is more malleable than common block ciphers. If not used together with a strong message authentication code (MAC), then encryption is vulnerable to a bit-flipping attack. It is noteworthy, however, that RC4, being a stream cipher, is the only common cipher which is immune to the 2011 BEAST attack on TLS 1.0, which exploits a known weakness in the way cipher block chaining mode is used with all of the other ciphers supported by TLS 1.0, which are all block ciphers.

RC4 Cipher Detail:

Key sizes: 40–2,048 bits
Block sizes: 2,064 bits (1,684 effective)
Structure: Source-heavy Feistel network
Rounds: 256

See also: